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Table 14 Independent challenges identified from selected studies

From: An analytical study of information extraction from unstructured and multidimensional big data

Challenges of unstructured big data IE Studies Frequency
Data quality [31, 58, 59, 63, 64, 84, 95, 138] 9
Data sparsity [16, 22, 31, 34, 95] 6
Data volume [10, 13, 15, 19, 65] 5
Data usability [11,12,13, 27, 28] 5
Context understanding [27, 31, 39, 64] 4
Computational requirements [15, 68, 84, 124] 4
Data dimensionality [16, 18, 66] 3
Heterogeneity [33, 131] 2
Diversity [55, 124] 2
Semantic understanding [43, 44] 2
Data modeling [16, 68] 2
Ambiguities in data [31, 105] 2
Data scarcity [62] 1
Balance among informativeness, representativeness, and diversity [127] 1