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Table 2 List of included articles

From: Big Data and discrimination: perils, promises and solutions. A systematic review

Author, Year, Country Design Participants Discipline Field of application Definition of discrimination Reference to legislation/regulatory text
Ajana (2015) [1], UK Theoretical   Social Sciences Migration Unequal treatment  
Ajunwa et al. (2016) [2], USA Theoretical   Bioethics Employment Not given—self explanatory  
Bakken and Reame (2016) [6], USA Theoretical   Bioethics Healthcare research Not applicable—digital divide  
Barocas and Selbst (2016) [8], USA Theoretical   Law Employment Disparate treatment/disparate impact  
Berendt and Preibusch (2014) [10], Belgium-UK Other   Computer Science Various Juridical—legally protected classes  
Berendt and Preibusch (2017) [11], Belgium-UK Other   Computer Science Various Illegitimate discrimination on grounds of four protected attributes  
Boyd and Crawford (2012) [12], Australia-USA Theoretical   Social Sciences Digital divide in research Not applicable—digital divide  
Brannon (2017) [13], USA Theoretical   Social Sciences Social disparity Not given—inequality  
Brayne (2017) [14], USA Qualitative A sample of Employees of LAPD (Officers and Civilians) Social Sciences Policing/criminology Not given—inequality  
Calders and Verwer (2010) [17], Netherlands Other   Computer Science Various Not given—self explanatory  
Casanas i Comabella and Wanat (2015)  [18], UK Theoretical   Bioethics Digital divide in research Not applicable—digital divide  
Cato et al. [19], USA Theoretical   Bioethics Healthcare Not given—injustice Belmont Report; 1976
Chouldechova (2017) [20], USA Other A sample of Caucasian/African American US Defendants Computer Science US criminal justice system Disparate impact  
Citron and Pasquale (2014) [21], USA Theoretical   Law Credit scoring Not given—reference to protected classes  
Cohen et al. (2017) [22], USA Theoretical   Bioethics Healthcare Not given—inequality  
d’Alessandro et al. (2017) [25], USA Theoretical   Computer Science Various Disparate treatment/disparate impact  
de Vries (2010) [27], Belgium Theoretical   Philosophy Various Unwarranted discrimination  
Francis and Francis (2017) [30], USA Theoretical   Law Healthcare and healthcare research Not given—stigmatization and harm  
Hajian and Domingo-Ferrer (2013) [32], Spain Other   Computer Science Various Not given—self explanatory  
Hajian et al. (2014) [33], Spain Other   Computer Science Various Unfair or unequal treatment Australian Legislation 2008; European Union Legislation 2009
Hajian et al. (2015) [34], Italy-Spain Other   Computer Science Various Unfair or unequal treatment Australian Legislation 2014; European Union Legislation 2014
Hildebrandt and Koops (2010) [35], USA Theoretical   Law Ambient intelligence Unlawful/unfair discrimination  
Hirsch (2015) [36], USA Theoretical   Law Various Not given—elusive concept  
Hoffman (2010) [37], USA Theoretical   Social Sciences Employment Unlawful discrimination on basis of disability Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 1990; Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA), 2003; Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 1996
Hoffman (2017) [38], USA Theoretical   Social Sciences Employment Unlawful discrimination on basis of disability Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 1990; Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA), 2003; Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 1996
Holtzhausen (2016) [39], USA Theoretical   Social Sciences Various Not given—self explanatory  
Kamiran and Calders (2012) [42], Netherlands-UK Other   Computer Science Various Unfair and unequal treatment Australian Sex Discrimination Act, 1984; US Equal Pay Act, 1963; US Equal Credit Opportunity Act, 1974; European Council Directive, 2004
Kamiran et al. (2013) [43], Netherlands-Saudi Arabia-UK Other   Computer Science Various Unfair and unequal treatment Australian Sex Discrimination Act, 1984; US Equal Pay Act, 1963
Kennedy and Moss (2015) [44], UK Theoretical   Social Sciences Society and culture Not given—self explanatory  
Kroll et al. (2017) [45], USA Theoretical   Law Various Not given—opposite of fair treatment  
Kuempel (2016) [46], USA Theoretical   Law Various Not given—self explanatory  
Le Meur et al. (2015) [47], France Quantitative A sample of pregnant women Bioethics Healthcare Not given  
Leese (2014) [48], Germany Theoretical   Ethics Aviation/migration Principle of equality and non discrimination [60]; European Convention on Human Rights, 1953; Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, 1958
Lerman (2013) [49], USA Theoretical   Law Digital divide in social participation Social marginalization/exclusion  
Lupton (2015) [51], Australia Theoretical   Social Sciences Society Not given—stigmatization  
MacDonnell (2015) [53], Ireland Theoretical   Social Sciences Insurance Not given  
Mantelero (2016) [54], China-Italy Theoretical   Social Sciences Various Unjust or prejudicial treatment  
Mao et al. (2015)  [55], USA Quantitative A sample of citizens from Cote D’Ivoire Social Sciences Economic development Not given—related to social and economic disparity  
Newell and Marabelli (2015) [58], UK-USA Theoretical   Social Sciences Various Not given—Harm towards vulnerable individuals  
Nielsen et al. (2017) [58], Brasil-USA Quantitative A sample of Twitter users in Brazil Social sciences Public health Not given—self explanatory  
Pak et al. (2017) [60], Belgium Quantitative Citizens of Brussels using “Fix My Street” App Social Science Urban and social involvement Not given—social exclusion/disparity  
Peppet (2014) [62], USA Theoretical   Law Various Illegal or unwanted discrimination  
Ploug and Holm (2017) [64], Denmark Theoretical   Bioethics Society Differential treatment and stigmatization  
Pope and Sydnor (2011) [66], USA Other Full sample of UI claimants from the State of New Jersey between 1995 and 1997 Computer Science Employment Not given—self explanatory  
Romei et al. (2013) [70], Italy Quantitative Italian female researchers Computer Science Academia Unjustified distinction of individuals based on their membership European Union Legislation, 2010
Ruggieri et al. (2010) [71], Italy Other   Computer Science Various Juridical Australian Legislation, 2010; European Union Legislation, 2010; United Nations Legislation, 2010; U.K. Legislation, 2010; U.S. Federal Legislation, 2010
Sharon (2016) [74], Netherlands Theoretical   Bioethics Healthcare and Healthcare Research Not given—self explanatory  
Schermer (2011) [73], Netherlands Theoretical   Social Sciences Not Defined Not given—self explanatory/Stigmatization  
Susewind [76], Germany Quantitative Selected Asian countries Social Sciences Various Not given—self explanatory  
Taylor (2016) [78], Netherlands Qualitative West Africa Population (Cote d’Azur) Social Sciences Surveillance Not given—self explanatory  
Taylor (2017) [79], Netherlands Theoretical   Social Sciences Various Disparity/inequality/exclusion  
Timmis et al. (2016) [80], UK Theoretical   Social Sciences Education Not given—social exclusion/disparity  
Turow et al. (2015) [81], USA Theoretical   Social Sciences Marketing Social discrimination  
Vaz et al. (2017) [83], Canada Quantitative   Social Sciences Urban development Social inequalities  
Veale (2017) [84], UK Theoretical   Social Sciences Various Not given—opposite of fairness and equality  
Voigt (2017) [85], Canada Theoretical   Social Sciences Healthcare Inequality  
Zarate et al. (2016) [91], USA Qualitative Participants of the PGP (Personal Genome Project) Bioethics Various Not given—self explanatory  
Zarsky (2014) [93], Israel Theoretical   Law Various Illusive concept—unfair or Unequal Treatment of the individual  
Zarsky (2016) [92], Israel Theoretical   Law Credit scoring Unfairness and inequality  
Zliobaite and Custers (2016) [95], Finland-Netherlands Other   Computer Science Various Juridical Race Equality Directive (2000/43/EC), Employment Equality Directive (2007/78/EC), Gender Recast Directive (2006/54/EC), Gender Goods and Services Directive (2006/113/EC)
Zliobaite (2017) [94], Finland-Netherlands Other   Computer Science Various Adversary treatment of people based on belonging to some group Race Equality Directive (2000/43/EC), Employment Equality Directive (2007/78/EC), Gender Recast Directive (2006/54/EC), Gender Goods and Services Directive (2006/113/EC)