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Table 6 Types of contribution

From: Big data in manufacturing: a systematic mapping study

Classification Description
Architecture Research that provides a theoretical view of how various components in a solution will sit together and interact.
Framework Research that describes the encapsulation of multiple software libraries that solve a particular problem, while also being extensible.
Theory Research that develops high-level guidelines and roadmaps for a particular problem.
Methodology Research that presents low-level approaches to solving a particular problem.
Model Research that produces mathematical models for solving particular problems.
Platform Research that provides a system with hardware and software components, which enables applications to execute.
Process Research that presents low-level processes to solving a particular problem.
Tool Research that develops well-defined software utilities that address a subset of a bigger problem.