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Table 2 Generalized multilevel mixed model parameter estimates of CIAF among under-five children in Ethiopia over time, 2000–2016

From: Spatial heterogeneities in acute lower respiratory infections prevalence and determinants across Ethiopian administrative zones

  COR (95% CI) p-value AOR (95% CI) p-value
Sex of child (Male@) 1    
Female 0.95 (0.79, 1.336) 0.552   
Age of child (0–11 months@) 1    
12–23 0.97 (0.79, 1.20) 0.782 0.90 (0.81, 1.01) 0.079
24–59 1.12 (0.96, 1.31) 0.156 0.81 (0.73, 0.90)  < 0.001*
The child received BCG (Yes@)     
No 1.07 (0.97, 1.18) 0.258   
The child received vitamin A (Yes) 1    
No 1.01 (0.92, 1.10) 0.982   
The child received medicine for intestine worms (Yes@) 1    
No 1.09 (0.93, 1.28) 0.313   
Stunting status (Normal@)     
Stunted 1.18 (1.08, 1.32)  < 0.001*** 1.17 (1.01, 1.37) 0.041
Wasting status (Normal@)     
Wasted 1.21 (1.04, 1.40) 0.012* 1.51 (1.24, 1.84)  < 0.001***
Underweight status (Normal@)     
Underweighted 1.33(1.21, 1.48)  < 0.001*** 1.14 (1.35, 1.54) 0.004**
Diarrhea status (No@)     
Yes 4.43(4.16, 4.73)  < 0.001*** 9.73 (8.57, 11.05)  < 0.001**
Parental characteristics     
Mother’ Educational level (No Education@) 1    
 Primary education 0.76 (0.68, 0.85)  < 0.001*** 0.64 (0.50, 0.81)  < 0.001***
 Secondary education 0.51 (0.42, 0.63)  < 0.001*** 0.21 (0.11, 0.38)  < 0.001***
 Higher 0.38 (0.24, 0.58)  < 0.001*** 0.37 (0.12, 1.08) 0.069
Father’ Educational level (No Education@) 1    
 Primary education 0.89 (0.80, 0.99) 0.025** 0.65 (0.53, 0.81)  < 0.001***
 Secondary education 0.75 (0.64, 0.88) ,0.001*** 0.37 (0.24, 0.57)  < 0.001***
 Higher 0.42 (0.32, 0.55)  < 0.001*** 0.31 (0.16, 0.59)  < 0.001***
Age of mother (15–19 years@) 1    
 20–29 0.62 (0.42, 0.94) 0.024* 0.75 (0.49, 1.15) 0.185
 30–39 0.73 (0.48, 1.12) 0.151 0.89 (0.57,1.39) 0.612
 40–49 1.15 (0.68, 1.93) 0.598 0.97 (0.57, 1.66) 0.923
Employment status of the mother (Working@) 1    
 Not working 1.43 (0.03,0.04)  < 0.001*** 1.08 (1.01, 1.14) 0.015*
Household factors     
Wealth index (Poorest@) 1    
 Poorer 0.70 (0.47, 1.04) 0.080 0.55(0.46, 0.67)  < 0.001***
 Middle 1.11 (0.73, 1.68) 0.628 0.77 (0.64, 0.93) 0.007**
 Richer 0.61 (0.40,0.93) 0.021* 0.74 (0.61, 0.89) 0.002***
 Richest 0.36 (0.22, 0.59)  < 0.001*** 0.20 (0.15, 0.27)  < 0.001***
Residence (Urban@) 1    
 Rural 1.72 (1.51, 1.95)  < 0.001*** 4.08 (3.10, 5.35)  < 0.001***
Household size (Less than 5@)     
 5 or more 1.17 (1.06, 1.30) 0.002** 1.14 (0.94 (1.38) 0.178
Source of drinking water (Improved@)     
 Unimproved 1.66 (1.51, 1.82)  < 0.001*** 1.19 (1.05, 1.36) 0.007**
Type of toilet facility (Improved@) 1    
 Unimproved 1.29 (1.17, 1.42)  < 0.001*** 2.59 (2.08, 3.22)  < 0.001***
Type of cooking fuel (Cleand@)     
 Not cleaned 3.57 (2.30, 5.55)  < 0.001*** 2.84 (1.97, 4.11)  < 0.001***
States (regions) of Ethiopia     
Regions of Ethiopia (Addis Ababa@) 1    
 Tigray 3.47 (2.82, 4.29)  < 0.001*** 2.83 (2.11, 3.81))  < 0.001***
 Afar 1.46 (1.16, 1.84)  < 0.001*** 1.77 (1.24, 2.51)  < 0.001***
 Amhara 2.37 (1.92,2.9)  < 0.001*** 2.35 (1.75, 3.170  < 0.001***
 Oromia 2.99 (2.44, 3.70)  < 0.001*** 2.85 (2.13, 3.81)  < 0.001***
 Somali 1.58 (1.27, 1.98)  < 0.001*** 1.46 (1.04, 2.05) 0.029**
 Benshangul 2.30 (1.85, 2.87)  < 0.001*** 2.43 (1.71, 3.43)  < 0.001***
 SNNP 2.31 (1.87, 2.84)  < 0.001*** 2.30 (1.70, 3.11)  < 0.001***
 Gembela 2.05 (1.63, 2.58)  < 0.001*** 2.08 (1.46, 2.94)  < 0.001***
 Hareri 1.08 (0.83, 1.39) 0.567 1.12 (0.75, 1.68) 0.564
 Dire-Dawa 1.25 (0.97, 1.60) 0.088 1.22 (0.83, 1.79) 0.303
Survey Year (2000@)     
 2005 0.40 (0.36, 0.45) 0.005** 0.42 (0.37, 0.47)  < 0.001**
 2011 0.44 (0.40, 0.48) 0.004** 0.46 (0.42, 0.51)  < 0.001**
 2016 0.30 (0.27, 0.33)  < 0.001*** 0.38 (0.34, 0.44)  < 0.001***
Level ICC Std.err (95% conf.Interval)
Zones 0.0435 0.009 (0.0283, 0.0660)
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, COR: Crude Odds Ratio, AOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio, CI: Confidence Interval @ references