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Table 1 Proportion of covariates and the prevalence of ALRIs (in parenthesis) within each covariate: 2000–2016

From: Spatial heterogeneities in acute lower respiratory infections prevalence and determinants across Ethiopian administrative zones

Characteristics 2000 (%) 2005(%) 2011 (%) 2016(%) All years (%) (combined mean)
N = 8139 N = 9238 N = 3767 N = 8455 N = 29599
Child characteristics      
Sex of child Male 50.78 (24.69) 50.74 (12.60) 51.41 (11.60) 51.28 (10.98) 51.06 (14.99)
 Female 49.22 (24.18) 49.26 (12.50) 48.59 (11.82) 48.72 (11.17) 48.94 (14.98)
Age of child (months) 0–11 1.04 (8.670) 21.99 (15.70) 0.95 (5.99) 21.80 (13.37) 11.20 (14.20)
 12–23 2.04 (18.48) 18.56 (14.61) 2.56 (6.66) 19.24 (13.91) 10.41 (13.98)
 24–59 96.92 (24.73) 59.45 (10.74) 96.48 (12.12) 58.96 (9.30) 78.39 (15.33)
Child received BCG No 56.27 (23.71) 48.55 (11.86) 39.56 (11.78) 35.98 (11.94) 46.07 (15.93)
 Yes 43.73 (25.37) 51.45 (13.21) 60.44 (11.66) 64.01 (13.28) 53.93 (15.50)
The child received No 44.11 (24.24) 56.22 (12.24) 52.09 (11.21) 59.68 (11.19) 52.92 (14.22)
 Vitamin A Yes 55.89 (24.63) 43.78 (12.95) 47.91 (12.24) 40.32 (10.91) 47.08 (15.85)
The child received medicine No   95.87 (13.96) 81.34 (11.42) 88.52 (10.91) 87.49 (11.90)
 Yes   4.13 (24.44) 18.66 (12.95) 11.48 (12.35) 12.51 (13.66)
Parental characteristics      
Mother’ Educational level No education 81.57 (25.06) 78.65 (12.53) 68.92 (11.72) 65.83 (11.02) 73.70 (15.53)
 Primary education 13.26 (22.65) 16.90 (13.52) 27.27 (11.95) 26.94 (12.37) 21.15 (14.08)
 Secondary education 4.94 (19.49) 4.03 (9.94) 2.28 (11.14) 4.73 (7.87) 3.98 (12.53)
 Higher 0.22 (14.06) 0.42 (2.15) 1.52 (7.41) 0.25 (4.44) 1.17 (5.72)
Father’ Educational level No education 63.71 (24.92) 58.40 (11.97) 49.96 (12.27) 48.54 (10.64) 55.20 (15.60)
 Primary education 25.11 (25.06) 30.46 (13.81) 41.61 (11.54) 39.18 (12.99) 34.10 (14.98)
 Secondary education 9.87 (21.11) 10.04 (13.54) 5.10 (10.23) 7.81 (9.66) 8.16 (14.46)
 Higher 1.31 (15.32) 1.11 (3.13) 3.34 (9.00) 4.47 (3.40) 2.55 (6.88)
Age of mother 15–19 4.42 (30.34) 4.87 (12.80) 4.01 (14.37) 3.45 (13.74) 4.18 (18.09)
 20–29 49.23 (24.33) 48.65 (12.96) 52.05 (11.61) 49.13 (10.94) 49.80 (14.96)
 30–39 35.41 (23.16) 36.32 (12.12) 35.17 (11.27) 38.73 (11.16) 36.38 (14.38)
 40–49 10.94 (26.68) 10.16 (10.04) 8.76 (12.80) 8.69 (10.39) 9.63 (16.08)
Employment status Working 44.15 (24.25) 76.74 (11.98) 65.77 (11.87) 27.12 (12.60) 53.39 (14.46)
Status of the mother Not working 55.85 (24.61) 23.26 (14.44) 34.23 (11.39) 72.88 (10.51) 46.61 (15.43)
Household factors      
Wealth index Poorest 12.57 (25.89) 21.94 (12.27) 22.43 (13.03) 23.99 (9.10) 22.78 (11.43)
 Poorer 26.87 (23.45) 20.99 (11.37) 22.14 (9.61) 22.91 (12.81) 22.02 (11.03)
 Middle 20.25 (27.79) 21.86 (14.63) 20.62 (13.69) 20.72 (12.68) 21.05 (13.67)
 Richer 19.08 (24.13) 19.93 (13.14) 19.54 (12.60) 17.85 (13.03) 19.11 (12.91)
 Richest 21.24 (25.79) 15.28 (10.84) 15.28 (8.98) 14.53 (7.90) 15.03 (9.24)
Residence Urban 10.61 (16.31) 7.44 (8.52) 13.00 (8.98) 11.16 (6.64) 10.61 (10.15)
 Rural 89.39 (25.40) 92.56 (12.88) 87.00 (12.12) 88.84 (11.63) 89.39 (15.56)
Household size Less than 5 24.92 (25.85) 22.35 (13.92) 24.02 (11.67) 26.09 (11.41) 24.36 (15.78)
 5 or more 75.08 (23.97) 77.65 (12.16) 75.98 (11.71) 73.91 (10.96) 75.64 (14.73)
Source of drinking water Unimproved 87.05 (25.31) 65.37 (13.37) 59.59 (12.28) 51.50 (11.12) 65.96 (16.68)
 Improve 12.95 (18.55) 34.63 (11.02) 40.41 (10.86) 48.50 (11.03) 34.04 (11.70)
Type of toilet facility Unimproved 86.10 (24.94) 70.79 (12.30) 49.12 (12.57) 39.13 (11.36) 61.23 (16.72)
 Improve 13.90 (21.30) 29.21 (13.17) 50.88 (10.87) 60.57 (10.89) 38.77 (12.24)
Type of cooking fuel Not cleaned 99.99 (24.45) 99.99 (12.55) 99.58 (11.72) 97.15 (11.18) 99.15 (15.05)
 Cleaned 0.01(0.00) 0.01 (0.00) 0.42 (7.29) 2.85 (7.45) 0.85 (7.13)
Stunting status Stunted 49.51 (26.37) 40.82 (11.63) 41.36 (12.32) 37.39 (12.22) 57.36 (16.58)
 Normal 50.49 (24.04) 59.18 (12.70) 58.64 (11.36) 62.21 (10.83) 42.64 (14.88)
 Wasting Wasted 10.37 (27.76) 9.27 (13.82) 9.19 (11.47) 9.93 (14.74) 9.74 (19.08)
 Normal 89.63 (24.81) 90.73 (12.10) 90.81 (16.36) 90.07 (10.98) 90.26 (15.23)
Underweight status Underweighted 45.52 (27.89) 33.84 (11.86) 26.87 (13.81) 23.69 (12.92) 32.28 (19.01)
 Normal 54.48 (22.94) 66.16 (12.47) 7313 (11.23) 76.31 (10.86) 97.72 (13.97)
Diarrhea No 76.34 (18.74) 81.88 (8.66) 86.57 (8.86) 88.22 (8.56) 83.26 (11.03)
 Yes 23.66 (42.96) 18.12 (30.13) 13.43 (30.09) 11.78 (29.91) 1674 (34.68)
 Regions of Ethiopia Tigray 6.59 (29.17) 6.46 (14.41) 6.36 (18.34) 6.59 (15.09) 6.50 (19.39)
 Afar 1.00 (21.91) 0.95 (5.26) 1.01 (7.97) 1.00 (7.95) 0.99 (10.91)
 Amhara 26.02 (21.66) 22.87 (9.32) 22.44 (12.71) 18.88 (10.41) 22.58 (14.04)
 Oromia 40.51 (27.39) 39.74 (14.24) 42.25 (11.56) 43.88 (13.15) 41.61(16.50)
 Somali 1.18 (21.18) 4.28 (6.98) 3.07 (14.59) 4.57 (4.12) 3.25 (9.18)
 Benshangul 1.00 (29.61) 0.94 (9.61) 3.07 (15.73) 1.09 (2.49) 1.05 (14.40)
 SNNP 21.37 (22.13) 22.49 (14.44) 1.15 (9.18) 20.82 (9.05) 21.37 (13.76)
 Gembela 0.23 (20.77) 0.29 (10.42) 20.87 (13.82) 0.24 (5.30) 0.28 (12.62)
 Hareri 0.21 (16.550 0.21 (9.33) 0.34 (1.91) 0.23 (2.54) 0.22 (7.230
 Addis Ababa 1.56(10.36) 1.44 (6.09) 1.94 (5.030 2.26 (5.31) 1.80 (6.48)
 Dire Dawa 0.33 (13.81) 0.34 (2.45) 0.34 (9.27) 0.42 (5.98) 0.36 (7.81)
Total 24.44 12.55 11.70 11.07 14.99