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Table 3 A taxonomy of privacy breaches and harms.

From: On the sustainability of smart and smarter cities in the era of big data: an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary literature review

Domain Privacy breach Description
Information collection Surveillance Watching, listening to, or recording of an individual’s activities
  Interrogation Various forms of questioning or probing for information
Information processing Aggregation The combination of various pieces of data about a person
  Identification Linking information to particular individuals
  Insecurity Carelessness in protecting stored information from leaks and improper access
  Secondary use Use of information collected for one purpose for a different purpose without the data subject’s consent
  Exclusion Failure to allow the data subject to know about the data that others have about her and participate in its handling and use, including being barred from being able to access and correct errors in that data
Information dissemination Breach of confidentiality Breaking a promise to keep a person’s information confidential
  Disclosure Revelation of information about a person that impacts the way others judge her character
  Exposure Revealing another’s nudity, grief, or bodily functions
  Increased accessibility Amplifying the accessibility of information
  Blackmail Threat to disclose personal information
  Appropriation The use of the data subject’s identity to serve the aims and interests of another
  Distortion Dissemination of false or misleading information about individuals
Invasion Intrusion Invasive acts that disturb one’s tranquillity or solitude
  Decisional interference Incursion into the data subject’s decisions regarding her private affairs