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Table 1 Definitions of smart cities

From: On the sustainability of smart and smarter cities in the era of big data: an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary literature review

Different foci and orientations of smart city definitions
‘A smart city is…a city which invests in ICT enhanced governance and participatory processes to define appropriate public service and transportation investments that can ensure sustainable socio-economic development, enhanced quality-of-life, and intelligent management of natural resources’ [5]
‘A smart city is a very broad concept, which includes not only physical infrastructure but also human and social factor’ [102]
‘Connecting the physical infrastructure, the IT infrastructure, the social infrastructure, and the business infrastructure to leverage the collective intelligence of the city… A city striving to make itself “smarter” (more efficient, sustainable, equitable, and livable’ [36]
‘Smart cities is a term…that describe cities that, on the one hand, are increasingly composed of and monitored by pervasive and ubiquitous computing and, on the other, whose economy and governance is being driven by innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship, enacted by smart people’ [79, p. 1]
A smart city is ‘a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies’ [16]
‘As presently understood, a smart city is one that strategically uses networked infrastructure and associated big data and data analytics to produce a: smart economy…; smart government…; smart mobility…; smart environments…; smart living…; and smart people…’ [80, p. 8]