Contextual anomaly detection framework for big sensor data
© Hayes and Capretz; licensee Springer. 2015
Received: 5 August 2014
Accepted: 10 December 2014
Published: 27 February 2015
The ability to detect and process anomalies for Big Data in real-time is a difficult task. The volume and velocity of the data within many systems makes it difficult for typical algorithms to scale and retain their real-time characteristics. The pervasiveness of data combined with the problem that many existing algorithms only consider the content of the data source; e.g. a sensor reading itself without concern for its context, leaves room for potential improvement. The proposed work defines a contextual anomaly detection framework. It is composed of two distinct steps: content detection and context detection. The content detector is used to determine anomalies in real-time, while possibly, and likely, identifying false positives. The context detector is used to prune the output of the content detector, identifying those anomalies which are considered both content and contextually anomalous. The context detector utilizes the concept of profiles, which are groups of similarly grouped data points generated by a multivariate clustering algorithm. The research has been evaluated against two real-world sensor datasets provided by a local company in Brampton, Canada. Additionally, the framework has been evaluated against the open-source Dodgers dataset, available at the UCI machine learning repository, and against the R statistical toolbox.
KeywordsBig data analytics Contextual anomaly detection Predictive modelling Multivariate clustering Streaming sensors
Anomalies are abnormal events or patterns that do not conform to expected events or patterns . Identifying anomalies is important in a broad set of disciplines; including, medical diagnosis, insurance and identity fraud, network intrusion, and programming defects. Anomalies are generally categorized into three types: point, or content anomalies; context anomalies, and collective anomalies. Point anomalies occur for data points that are considered abnormal when viewed against the whole dataset. Context anomalies are data points that are considered abnormal when viewed against meta-information associated with the data points. Finally, collective anomalies are data points which are considered anomalies when viewed with other data points, against the rest of the dataset.
Algorithms to detect anomalies generally fall into three types: unsupervised, supervised, and semi-supervised . These techniques range from training the detection algorithm using completely unlabelled data, to having a pre-formed dataset with entries labelled normal or abnormal, and to those that rely only partially on external input. A common output of these techniques is a trained categorical classifier which receives a new data entry as the input, and outputs a hypothesis for the data points abnormality. One problem with standard anomaly detection approaches is that there is little concern for the context of the data content. For example, a sensor reading may determine that a particular electrical box is consuming an abnormally high amount of energy. However, when viewed in context with the location of the sensor, current weather conditions, and time of year, it is well within normal bounds. These types of anomalies are commonly found in fields with spatial, sequential, or temporal attributes that can be associated with the sensor .
One interesting, and growing, field where anomaly detection is prevalent is in Big Data, and in particular, sensor data. Sensor data that is streamed from sources such as electrical outlets, water pipes, telecommunications, Web logs, and many other areas, generally follows the template of large amounts of data that is input very frequently. For example, in Web logs, anomaly detection can be used to identify abnormal behavior, such as identify fraud. In many of these areas one difficulty is coping with the velocity and volume of the data while still providing real-time support for detection of anomalies. Further, future prediction, energy usage reduction strategies, and anomaly detection are popular sources of new technological developments, many aimed at creating intelligent buildings. Intelligent builds are those that can manage, optimize, and reduce their own energy consumption, based on Big sensor Data .
There is also much discussion on the types of algorithms applied to anomaly detection; some consider that there is a paradigm shift in the types of algorithms used: from computationally expensive algorithms to computationally inexpensive algorithms . The inexpensive algorithms may have much higher training accuracy error; that is, the error accumulated per record when training. However, when normalized over the entire, large, dataset, the higher training accuracy error converges to a lesser prediction error. Prediction error is defined as the error accumulated when predicting new values from a trained predictor . The prediction error for the inexpensive algorithm is within similar ranges as those found with the computationally more expensive algorithm, yet occurring over a much smaller time frame. A motivation of this work is to then take this notion and shift it to incorporate these computationally expensive algorithms which still generally perform better.
Contextual anomaly detection seeks to find relationships within datasets where variations in external behavioural attributes well describe anomalous results in the data. For example, viewing data in the context of time, or in the context of time-related concepts such as seasons, weekdays and weekends, workdays and time-off, can reveal anomalous behaviour directly correlated with such context. This is distinct from content anomalies which can be defined as abnormal instances in data with respect to the implicit data alone. An example of a content anomaly is an abnormal spike in user logins on a website, independent from external reasons. An example for contextual anomalies can be found in a use-case such as power consumption likely has context-based, time-related relationships: it makes sense to posit that the power consumption of an office building is much higher during midday, during a work day, compared to at night, during a weekend. One aspect of this work is to explore, and show the work is successfully applied, for these more obvious relationships while also remaining expandable to learning and revealing complex contextually anomalous behaviours.
Some related works have focused on anomaly detection in data with spatial relationships , while others propose methods to define outliers based on relational class attributes . A prevalent issue in these works is their scalability to large amounts of data. In most cases the algorithms have increased their complexity to overcome more naive methods, but in doing so have limited their application scope to offline detection. This problem is compounded as Big Data requirements are found not only in giant corporations such as Amazon or Google, but in more and more small companies that require storage, retrieval, and querying over very large scale systems. Additionally, where an algorithm may have excelled in its serial elision, it is now necessary to view the algorithm in parallel; using concepts such as divide and conquer, or MapReduce . Many common anomaly detection algorithms such as k-nearest neighbour, single class support vector machines, and outlier-based cluster analysis are designed for single machines .
The research in this paper will describe a technique to detect contextually anomalous values in streaming sensor systems. This research is based on the notion that anomalies have dimensional and contextual locality. That is, the dimensional locality will identify those abnormalities which are found to be structurally different based on the sensor reading. Contextually, however, the sensors may introduce new information which diminishes or enhances the abnormality of the anomaly. Further, the technique will use a two-part detection scheme to ensure that point anomalies are detected in real-time and then evaluated using contextual clustering. The latter evaluation will be performed based on sensor profiles which are defined by identifying sensors that are used in similar contexts. The primary goal of this technique is to provide a scalable way to detect, classify, and interpret anomalies in sensor-based systems. This ensures that real-time anomaly detection can occur. The proposed approach is novel in its application to very large scale systems, and in particular, its use of contextual information to reduce the rate of false positives. Further, we posit that our work can be extended by defining a third step based on the semantic locality of the data, providing a further reduction in the number of anomalies which are false positive.
The following sections of the paper are organized as follows: the “Background and literature review” section will describe related works in the field of anomaly detection in streaming sensor systems. The “Research design and methodology” section will outline the approach taken by the proposed research. The framework will be applied on three datasets in the “Results and discussion” section. Finally, the “Conclusions” section will describe concluding thoughts and ideas for future work in this area.
Background and literature review
Definitions for types of contextual attributes
The records in the dataset include features which identify locational information for the record. For example, a sensor reading may have spatial attributes for the city, province, and country the sensor is located in; it could also include finer-grained information about the sensors location within a building, such as floor, room, and building number.
The records are related to other records as per some graph structure. The graph structure then defines a spatial neighbourhood whereby these relationships can be considered as contextual indicators.
The records can be considered as a sequence within one another. That is, there is meaning in defining a set of records that are positioned one after another. For example, this is extremely prevalent in time-series data whereby the records are timestamped and can thus be positioned relative to each other based on time readings.
The records can be clustered within profiles that may not have explicit temporal or spatial contextualities. This is common in anomaly detection systems where, for example, a company defines profiles for their users; should a new record violate the existing user profile, that record is declared anomalous.
Contextual anomaly applications are normally handled in one of two ways. First, the context anomaly problem is transformed into a point anomaly problem. That is, the application attempts to apply separate point anomaly detection techniques to the same dataset, within different contexts. In this approach, it is necessary to define the contexts of normal and anomalous records apriori, which is not always possible within many applications. This is true for the Big sensor Data use case, where it is difficult to define the entire set of known anomalous records. The second approach to handling contextual anomaly applications is to utilize the existing structure within the records to detect anomalies using all the data concurrently. This is especially useful when the context of the data cannot be broken into discrete categories, or when new records cannot easily be placed within one of the given contexts. The second approach generally requires a higher computational complexity than the first approach as the underlying algebra in calculating a contextual anomaly is computationally expensive.
Many previous anomaly detection algorithms in the sensoring domain focus on using the sequential information of the reading to predict a possible value and then comparing this value to the actual reading. Hill and Minsker  propose a data-driven modelling approach to identify point anomalies in such a way. In their work they propose several one-step ahead predictors; i.e. based on a sliding window of previous data, predict the new output and compare it to the actual output. Hill and Minsker  note that their work does not easily integrate several sensor streams to help detect anomalies. This is in contrast to the work outlined in this paper where the proposed technique includes a contextual detection step that includes historical information for several streams of data, and their context. In an earlier work, Hill et al.  proposed an approach to use several streams of data by employing a real-time Bayesian anomaly detector. The Bayesian detector algorithm can be used for single sensor streams, or multiple sensor streams. However, their approach relies strictly on the sequential sensor data without including context. Focusing an algorithm purely on detection point anomalies in the sensoring domain has some drawbacks. First, it is likely to miss important relationships between similar sensors within the network as point anomaly detectors work on the global view of the data. Second, it is likely to generate a false positive anomaly when context such as the time of day, time of year, or type of location is missing. For example, hydro sensor readings in the winter may fluctuate outside the acceptable anomaly identification range, but this could be due to varying external temperatures influencing how a building manages their heating and ventilation.
Little work has been performed in providing context-aware anomaly detection algorithms. Srivastava and Srivastava , proposed an approach to bias anomaly detectors using functional and contextual constraints. Their work provides meaningful anomalies in the same way as a post-processing algorithm would, however, their approach requires an expensive dimensionality reduction step to flatten the semantically relevant data with the content data. Mahapatra et al.  propose a contextual anomaly detection framework for use in text data. Their work focuses on exploiting the semantic nature and relationships of words, with case studies specifically addressing tags and topic keywords. They had some promising results, including a reduction in the number of false positives identified without using contextual information. Their approach was able to use well-defined semantic similarity algorithms specifically for identifying relationships between words. This is in contrast to the work proposed in this paper as we are concerned with contextual information such as spatio-temporal relationships between sensors. Similar to the work proposed in this paper is their use of contextual detection as a post-processing step. This allows the algorithm to be compared and optimized at two distinct steps: point anomaly detection, and contextual anomaly detection.
A different approach for contextual detection is that work of AlEroud et al. , who apply contextual anomaly detection to uncover zero-day cyber attacks. Their work involves two distinct steps, similar to the modules described in this paper: contextual misuse module, and an anomaly detection technique. There are other minor modules, such as data pre-processing, and profile sampling. The first major component, contextual misuse, utilizes a conditional entropy-based technique to identify those records that are relevant to specific, useful, contexts. The second component, anomaly detection, uses a 1-nearest neighbour approach to identify anomalies based on some distance measure. This component is evaluated over the records individually to determine whether connections between records indicate anomalous values. The work presented by AlEroud et al.  is similar to the work presented in this paper in that the detection is composed of two distinct modules. However, the content component of their work involves calculating difficult distance measures that are not always easily definable. For example, when faced with many features that each have different data types or domains, it is difficult to calculate suitable distance metrics as finding a common method to aggregate the features is also difficult. Another drawback is that each module is normally evaluated for all new incoming values. While the authors do say that the first component aims to reduce the dimensionality required for the second component, they go on to mention that both the contextual component and anomaly detection component are calculated individually to evaluate the anomaly detection prowess of the approach.
Miller et al.  discuss anomaly detection in the domain of attributed graphs. Their work allows for contextual data to be included within a graph structure. One interesting result is that considering additional metadata forced the algorithm to explore parts of the graph that were previously less emphasized. A drawback of Miller et al.’s  work is that their full algorithm is difficult for use in real-time analytics. To compensate, they provide an estimation of their algorithm for use in real-time analytics, however the estimation is not explored in detail and so it is difficult to determine its usefulness in the real-time detection domain.
Other work has been done in computationally more expensive algorithms, such as support vector machines (SVMs) and neural networks. In general, these algorithms require a large amount of training time, and little testing time. In most cases this is acceptable as models can be trained in an offline manner, and then evaluated in real-time. One disadvantage to using these classification-based algorithms is that many require accurate labels for normal classes within the training data . This is difficult in scenarios such as environmental sensor networks where there is little to no labelling for each sensor value. Shilton et al.  propose a SVM approach to multiclass classification and anomaly detection in wireless sensor networks. Their work requires data to have known classes to be classified into, and then those data points which cannot be classified are considered anomalous. One issue that the authors present is the difficulty in setting one of the algorithm’s parameters. To reduce the effect of the computational complexity of these algorithms, Lee et al.  have proposed work to detect anomalies by leveraging Hadoop. Hadoop is an open-source software framework that supports applications to run on distributed machines. Their work is preliminary in nature and mostly addresses concerns and discussion related to anomaly detection in Big Data. Another online anomaly detection algorithm has been proposed by Xie et al. . Their work uses a histogram-based approach to detect anomalies within hierarchical wireless sensor networks. A drawback to their approach is their lack of consideration for multivariate data. That is, their work focuses strictly on developing histograms for the data content but not the context of the data.
Another component of the work presented in this paper is deploying a modular, hierarchical, framework to ensure the algorithm can cope with the velocity and volume of Big Data. Other work by Kittler et al.  present a system architecture to detect anomalies in the machine perception domain. In particular, they propose a set of definitions and taxonomies to clearly define the roles and boundaries within their anomaly detection architecture. Their work is underlined with a Bayesian probabilistic predictor which is enhanced by concepts such as outlier, noise, distribution drift, novelty detection and rare events. These concepts are used to extend their application to other domains that consider similar concepts. This approach is in distinct contrast to the work proposed by this paper. Concretely, Kittler et al.  present context as more analagous to semantics in that the additional information they add is similar to domain ontologies rather than contextual information inherently associated within the data.
Research design and methodology
The work proposed in this paper describes a framework consisting of two distinct components: the content anomaly detector and the contextual anomaly detector. The work is described as a framework as it provides an extendible and modular approach to anomaly detection, not requiring specific implementations for each module: the content and context detectors in particular. The rest of this paper will propose one possible solution for the modules, which works particularly well for the streaming sensor use-case.
Content anomaly detection
Content anomaly detection, or point anomaly detection, has been well explored in literature. In particular, the proposed content anomaly detection technique will use a univariate Gaussian predictor to determine point anomalies. Univariate Gaussian predictors build a historical model of the data, and then predict and compare new values based on the model. The predictor will be univariate in that it will only consider the historical sensor readings to adjust the parameters of the model. There will be no consideration for the contextual meta-information associated with the sensor readings. This ensures that the predictor can classify new values quickly while sacrificing some accuracy. Speed is the most important characteristic for the point detector as it needs to evaluate a high velocity and volume of data in real-time. The accuracy shortcoming will be handled by the contextual anomaly detector.
Contextual anomaly detection
The contextual anomaly detector is based on two concepts: defining the sensor profiles and assigning each sensor to one of the sensor profiles, and evaluating the current sensor value (declared anomalous by the content anomaly detector) against the sensor profile’s average expected value. The sensor profiles are defined using a multivariate clustering algorithm; the algorithm is multivariate to include the sensors multidimensional contextual metadata which may include location, building, ownership company, time of year, time of day, and weather phenomena. The clustering algorithm will place each sensor within a sensor profile and then assign that profile group to the sensor. When a sensor has been declared anomalous by the content anomaly detector, the context anomaly detector will determine the average expected value of the sensor group. Then, in a similar way as in Equation 3, the context anomaly detector will determine whether the sensor value falls within the acceptable prediction interval.
Randomly initiate K random clusters
Partition the dataset into the K random clusters, based on Equation 4; placing items into each cluster based on the smallest distance to the cluster
Re-calculate the centroids for each cluster
- 4.Repeat Step 2 until Step 3 does not modify cluster centroids(4)
Offline: generate k clusters for each sensor profile
Offline: generate k Gaussian classifiers for each sensor profile
Online: evaluate corresponding Gaussian classifier when receiving a value by the content detector
Complexity and parameter discussion
The contextual detection algorithm works on multiple dimensions of the dataset, and thus has a higher computational complexity in comparison to the content detector. To cope with higher computational complexity, the proposed framework utilizes parallelization and data reduction in an important way. The anomaly detection evaluation uses the notion of data reduction by only evaluating the computationally more expensive contextual anomaly detector on a very small subset of the data. The modularity of the content detector and the context detector allows the proposed research to be implemented in a large distributed environment. The content detectors can independently process information in parallel on distributed machines and only need to share findings to the context detector when an anomaly is detected. Then, the framework can horizontally scale by adding additional machines to indepdently process new data.
Another important aspect of the proposed algorithms is the selection of some of the parameters. For example, selection of the k in the k-means clustering algorithm will have a large impact on the accuracy of the Gaussian predictors. The problem of parameter selection is well-known in data mining but a work entitled k-means++ by Arthur and Vassilvitskii  attempts to overcome this issue, specifically for k-means clustering. Therefore, the implementation of this work will utilize the k-means++ algorithm in place of the classic k-means algorithm. This does not change the sets of equations listed earlier in this section.
Results and discussion
The evaluation of the proposed technique was done using their existing system. Preliminary studies were not done in real-time but rather trained in batch over their historical data and validated using a test dataset. To test the implementation offline, while emulating a real-time environment, several pseudo data streams were created and pushed to the detector at regular intervals mirroring the real world case. The following sub-sections will detail the implementation of the technique, and the results. The evaluation of the proposed work will also be shown on the open-source Dodgers dataset, available from the UCI Machine Learning repository ,.
Powersmiths and the Datasets
Dataset and feature domains
0.00 - 100.00
Sensor 1 Location
0.00 - 100.00
Sensor 2 Location
0.00 - 100.00
Sensor 3 Location
0.00 - 100.00
Sensor 4 Location
Day of the Week
0 - 7
Time of Day
Sensor dataset 2: temperature
Time of Day
The implementation for the framework was completed using a virtualized sensor stream. That is, the application was built around an old view of the Big Sensor Data dataset, and not done over the real, live, data. To ensure the data was still tested as though it was real-time, a virtualized sensor stream was created. This was accomplished by extracting the different sensors from the entire dataset into their own individual datasets. The queue would then be incrementally evaluated and removed. A code listing for this process can be found in Listing 1. Another important implementation detail is the determination in the number of sensor profiles to create during the contextual detection process. Determining the number of profiles was done as a pre-processing step, iteratively increasing the number of sensor profiles until the accuracy was no longer improved. Empirically this was determined to be three clusters for the Powersmiths datasets. Logically this also made sense as Powersmiths provides three types of sensoring to their clients.
Dataset 1 implementation and results: HVAC
The preliminary implementation for this work was completed in Java using the Weka  open-source data mining library for building the clusters. There were four sensors included in the HVAC dataset, all measuring the electricity from power meters located in different areas within the building. For example, there were sensors for the two research and development areas, existing on two floors. Also, there were sensors for the two administrative sectors of the building. Information on the location, as well as the sensor reading time as described in Table 2 were included.
The initial Gaussian anomaly predictor using only content information (i.e. the data stream itself) was built using all the sensor values in the training dataset. This predictor is labelled as Univariate Gaussian Predictor Univariate Gaussian Predictor in Algorithm 1 and Figure 2. For the purposes of this proof of concept, the parameters μ and σ2, from Equation (1) and Equation (2), were determined iteratively. In further studies the authors would like to show relative speed-ups and trade-offs in parallelizing this step of the algorithm. Evaluating the sensor data was done in real-time as the simulator streamed in values. Given the low computational expense of this step, parallelization may not provide a large performance increase.
We empirically determined that three clusters were appropriate for building a clustering model; beyond three the clustering algorithm saw little improvement. The cluster process is shown as Build Clusters Build Clusters in Figure 2. After determining the sensor profiles by clustering, a contextual Gaussian predictor was built for each contextual cluster, or sensor profile as defined in the “Research design and methodology” section. Algorithm 1 labels this as Multivariate Gaussian PredictorMultivariate Gaussian Predictor. Again, for the purposes of this proof of concept, the arrays of μ and Σ for each sensor profile were determined iteratively. This would need to be compared to a parallel elision as future work.
Thus, we can say that the algorithm reduced the number of false-positive anomalies by 2. The other benefit we see here is that the more computationally expensive contextual detector only needed to evaluate 23 sensor readings, instead of the tens of thousands that are streamed to the point detector. Therefore, as the detection algorithm scales to more volumes of data, with higher velocities of data streams, the algorithm will still be able to evaluate the computationally more expensive contextual detector while still providing real-time detection.
Dataset 2 implementation and results: temperature
The second major component to be evaluated is the context detection. To perform context detection, the proposed framework first needs to determine the sensor profiles for the temperature sensors. For dataset 2, it was determined that two sensor profiles existed within the dataset; adding more clusters did not increase the effectiveness of the context detector. Further, the two sensor profiles that were revealed included one group for the two temperature sensors that record latent temperatures, and three sensors that record room temperature. Once determining the two sensor profile groups, two multivariate Gaussian predictors were trained, one for each cluster. The results of the contextual detector determined that 11 of the 254 point anomalies could be cleared as being non-anomalous with respect to their context. It was also found that when training the context detector with one sensor profile, i.e. not including the initial context of the data, there were no contextual anomalies cleared. Additionally, when removing the Day and TimeOfDay(TOD) attributes, no contextual anomalies were found. This further shows that the addition of the context detector has a positive impact of determining anomalous readings. The results of running the simulation using the contextual detection with the content detection for both datasets are shown in Figure 5. The figure shows the distribution of context anomalies found within the content anomalies.
Anomalous examples for dataset 2
Dataset 2 running time results
Dataset 3 implementation and results: dodger loop
The final dataset used for evaluation is based on data collected by the Freeway Performance Measurement System (PeMS) in California. The data was collected for the Dodgers Loop in Los Angeles, for times when the Los Angeles Dodgers were playing baseball games. The initial goal of the data was to predict days when there were Dodgers games, based on the traffic seen at the Dodgers Loop. The data includes observations over 25 weeks, at 288 time slices per day. In total, there are three attributes, two contextual, one behavioural, and 50,400 tuples.
Synonymous to the Powersmiths datasets, the first component to evaluate is the content detection for the Dodgers Loop dataset. In testing the proposed work’s content detection using the test data, the content detector was able to find 17 anomalies. These anomalies are considered to be point anomalous. These anomalies were all injected into the dataset as there were no anomalies found when initially running the algorithm. The authors attempted to inject values that should be considered anomalies (i.e. abnormally high amounts of traffic for early mornings where there was certainly no Dodger baseball game).
Dataset 3 running time results
Anomalous Examples for dataset 3
Day Of Week
Cars Per 5 min
Time Of Day
Validation and cross-validation
We present the validation of our work in two ways. First, we discuss our work in comparison with other views on the same datasets we used, as well as other works in the area of anomaly detection. Second, we discuss our work with respect to Powersmiths use-case, and specifically related to the apriori knowledge they have provided. First, it is difficult to compare anomaly detection algorithms as the definition for an anomaly is highly dependent on the use-case. For example, Powersmiths may consider abnormal values within 10% deviation an anomaly, whereas another energy management company considers values within 8% deviation an anomaly. With this in consideration, we present a major benefit of our work: a sliding detection threshold. That is, the threshold for an anomaly to be considered abnormal can be configured dynamically based on the use case. A second way in which we validated our work is to compare it with the standard R statistical toolbox, and specifically the outlier function in the outliers package.
Results comparison with the R outliers package
A major difference between the work presented in this paper and the R outliers package is in the running time of both algorithms. One of the major design considerations for the proposed work was the ability to run in real-time. The R outliers package runs in batch over the entire set of data and runs on the order of minutes to completion, whereas our work runs on the order of seconds.
The work presented in this paper and R outliers package detected a number of equivalent anomalies. The huge list of anomalies pertaining to the failed sensors identified apriori by Powersmiths were found by both detectors. Further, the work presented in this paper detected all of the anomalies detected by the R outliers package, including those that were contextually cleared.
When given thess datasets, Powersmiths mentioned that there were lengths of time when various sensors failed at their headquarters. Specifically in the temperature dataset, where the framework was able to successfully identify these anomalous readings, as shown below the double-line break in Table 5. This is promising as it validates the approach for the real-world data, knowing a set of values that were previously considered anomalous by Powersmiths. The detector additionally determined a set of anomalies that were not purely based on a totally failed sensor; these are shown above the double-line in Table 5. One of the difficulties with validating any anomaly detection approach is that the definition of an anomaly changes depending on the owner of the dataset, and their view over what should be considered anomalous. Therefore, a first step in validation is determining that the framework could initially identify all values which were considered anomalous by the dataset owner: Powersmiths themselves. Another consideration is performing cross-validation, that is, using different subsets of the dataset for training and testing to ensure that the framework still identifies those values as anomalous in different subsets of the dataset.
Cross-validation was performed for the temperature dataset and found that the anomalous values presented by Powersmiths were again detected. In fact, one of the subsets for cross-validation included a subset of 15% of the dataset where there were no anomalies identified by Powersmiths. Indeed, the framework did not detect any anomalies for this subset of the data. To summarize the validation of the framework for the presented datasets, the approach was four-fold:
Confirm that the framework is able to identify anomalies with respect to those identified by Powersmiths, the dataset owner, themselves.
Validate that the framework is able to identify injected anomalies by the author; these are values that fall well out of the parameters of one or more of the attributes in the dataset.
Compare the results with the R statistical toolbox to ensure that the results found by the framework are consistent with the offline approach of the R statistical toolbox.
Cross-validate the results of the dataset with other subsets of the dataset. That is, use different subsets of 15% to compare and confirm that the framework still identifies all the anomalous values.
Random positive detection: implementation and results
From Equation 8, we can see that the probability that we randomly detect an event that already has a small percentage of occurring is very low. Due to this property, it is necessary to rethink the approach in determining the random values. Before continuing our approach for these three datasets, we attempted to determine, offline, whether there were any values to randomly detect. Concretely, we tested whether there were any contextual anomalies that were not passed to the context detector from the content detector. In running only the context detector over the entire test dataset, the results showed that there were no context anomalies that were not passed to the content detector. Therefore, for the three datasets used for the evaluation of this work, none contained anomalies that were normal with respect to their content, but abnormal with respect to their context.
The work presented in the paper describes a novel framework for anomaly detection in Big Data. Specifically, the framework utilizes a hierarchical approach to identify anomalies in real-time, while also detecting a number of false positives. Then, a contextual anomaly detection algorithm is used to prune the anomalies detected by the content detector, but using the meta-information associated with the data points. To cope with the velocity and volume of Big Data, the anomaly detection algorithm relies on a fast, albeit less accurate, point anomaly detection algorithm to find anomalies in real-time from sensor streams. These anomalies can then be processed by a contextually aware, more computationally expensive, anomaly detection algorithm to determine whether the anomaly was contextually anomalous. This approach allows the algorithm to scale to Big Data requirements as the computationally more expensive algorithm is only needed on a very small set of the data, i.e. the already determined anomalies.
The evaluation of the framework was also discussed based on the implementation details provided in this paper. The evaluation of the framework was performed using three sets of data; one for a set of HVAC electricity sensors, one for a set of temperature sensors, and a third set for a traffic system in California. The evaluation provided some conclusions of the work:
The framework was able to positively detect, in real-time, content based anomalies for the datasets. Further, the context detector was able to determine some anomalies that should not be considered anomalous when evaluated with respect to context.
The framework was able to positively detect anomalies that were determined apriori by the owner of the datasets. In particular, the framework determined a large set of anomalous readings which occurred when Powersmiths indicated a massive sensor failure.
The framework performed competitively with the R outlier statistical package. The framework performed in real-time, in comparison with the batch approach provided by the R application.
One of the major goals of the framework was to remain modular and scalable for future works. As a result, there are several areas of future work that would be interesting to explore:
The datasets considered in the evaluation section are only one type of Big Data: tall datasets. It is important to consider the other common type of application: wide datasets. These are attributed by a large number of features, with a smaller number of records. One of the major benefits of this work is that the hierarchy of content to contextual detection ensures that a computationally inexpensive algorithm reduces the number of records evaluated by the contextual detector.
The framework has been tested in the simulated, virtualized, sensor streaming environment. Therefore, a logical future work would be to implement the framework within a working business environment that is streaming live data to the central repository.
The framework could also be integrated with decision making systems within a live environment. The output of the framework is an indication that a sensor is acting anomalous. This information can be exploited by a decision making algorithm, such as a complex event processing framework, to coordinate changes within the business environment.
The modularity of the framework allows further components to be added, or updated, in the framework. This introduces two such avenues of future work: first, the proposed modules can be modifed and updated with other types of algorithms. Second, additional modules could be added to the framework itself. For example, a semantic detection module can be included.
This research was supported by an NSERC CGS-M research grant to Michael Hayes at Western University (CGSM-444130-2013). The authors would also like to acknowledge the support provided by Powersmiths.
- Chandola V, Banerjee A, Kumar V: Anomaly detection: a survey. ACM Comput Surv 2009,41(3):1–58. 10.1145/1541880.1541882View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chan H, Chou P, Duri S, Lei H, Reason J (2009) The design and implementation of a smart building control system In: e-Business Engineering, 2009. ICEBE ’09. IEEE International Conference On, 255–262.. IEEE.Google Scholar
- Fan J, Han F, Liu H (2014) Challenges of big data analysis. Natl Sci Rev. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Dalessandro B: Bring the noise: Embracing randomness is the key to scaling up machine learning algorithms. Big Data 2013,1(2):110–112. 10.1089/big.2013.0010MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- He Z, Xu X, Huang JZ, Deng S: Mining class outliers: concepts, algorithms and applications in crm. Expert Syst Appl 2004,27(4):681–697. 10.1016/j.eswa.2004.07.002View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kou Y, Lu C-T (2006) Spatial weighted outlier detection In: Proceedings of SIAM Conference on Data Mining.. SIAM.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dean J, Ghemawat S: MapReduce: Simplified data processing on large clusters. Commun ACM 2008,51(1):107–113. 10.1145/1327452.1327492View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rajasegarar S, Leckie C, Palaniswami M: Anomaly detection in wireless sensor networks. Wireless Commun IEEE 2008,15(4):34–40. 10.1109/MWC.2008.4599219View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Song X, Wu M, Jermaine C, Ranka S: Conditional anomaly detection. Knowl Data Eng IEEE Trans 2007,19(5):631–645. 10.1109/TKDE.2007.1009View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hill DJ, Minsker BS: Anomaly detection in streaming environmental sensor data: A data-driven modeling approach. Environ Model Softw 2010,25(9):1014–1022. 10.1016/j.envsoft.2009.08.010View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hill DJ, Minsker BS, Amir E (2009) Real-time bayesian anomaly detection in streaming environmental data. Water Resources Res 45(4).Google Scholar
- Srivastava N, Srivastava J (2010) A hybrid-logic approach towards fault detection in complex cyber-physical systems In: Prognostics and Health Management Society, 2010 Annual Conference of The, 13–24.. IEEE.Google Scholar
- Mahapatra A, Srivastava N, Srivastava J: Contextual anomaly detection in text data. Algorithms 2012,5(4):469–489. 10.3390/a5040469View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- AlEroud A, Karabatis G (2012) A contextual anomaly detection approach to discover zero-day attacks In: Cyber Security, 2012 International Conference On, 40–45.. IEEE.Google Scholar
- Miller BA, Arcolano N, Bliss NT (2013) Efficient anomaly detection in dynamic, attributed graphs: Emerging phenomena and big data In: Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI), 2013 IEEE International Conference On, 179–184.. IEEE.Google Scholar
- Shilton A, Rajasegarar S, Palaniswami M (2013) Combined multiclass classification and anomaly detection for large-scale wireless sensor networks In: Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, 2013 IEEE Eighth International Conference On, 491–496.. IEEE.Google Scholar
- Lee JR, Ye S-K, Jeong H-DJ (2013) Detecting anomaly teletraffic using stochastic self-similarity based on Hadoop In: Network-Based Information Systems (NBiS), 2013 16th International Conference On, 282–287.. IEEE.Google Scholar
- Xie M, Hu J, Tian B (2012) Histogram-based online anomaly detection in hierarchical wireless sensor networks In: Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications, 2012 IEEE 11th International Conference On, 751–759.. IEEE.Google Scholar
- Kittler J, Christmas W, Campos TD, Windridge D, Yan F, Illingworth J, Osman M: Domain anomaly detection in machine perception: a system architecture and taxonomy. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2013,99(PrePrints):1.Google Scholar
- Arthur D, Vassilvitskii S (2007) K-means++: The advantages of careful seeding In: Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms. SODA ’07, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1027–1035, Philadelphia, PA, USA.http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1283383.1283494Google Scholar
- Powersmiths (2010) Powersmiths: Power for the Future. http://ww2.powersmiths.com/index.php?q=content/powersmiths/about-usGoogle Scholar
- Bache K, Lichman M (2013) UCI Machine Learning Repository. http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml., Bache K, Lichman M (2013) UCI Machine Learning Repository. . http://archive.ics.uci.edu/mlGoogle Scholar
- Hutchins J (2013) Freeway Performance Measurement System (PeMS). http://pems.dot.ca.gov/., Hutchins J (2013) Freeway Performance Measurement System (PeMS). . http://pems.dot.ca.gov/Google Scholar
- Machine Learning Group (2012) Weka 3 - Data Mining with Open Source Machine Learning Software in Java. http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/ml/weka/., Machine Learning Group (2012) Weka 3 - Data Mining with Open Source Machine Learning Software in Java. . http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/ml/weka/Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.